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Learn more. This study describes a phenomenological hermeneutical method for interpreting interview texts inspired by Naughty girls in Holbrook theory of interpretation presented by Paul Ricoeur.
Narrative interviews are transcribed. The comprehensive understanding discloses new possibilities for being in the world. This world can be described as se prefigured life world of the interviewees as configured in the interview and refigured first in the researcher's interpretation and second in the interpretation of the readers of the research report.
This may help the readers refigure their own life. From time to time nurses and physicians experience ethically difficult situations in Adult seeking real sex ND Fort clark 58530 care work.
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They are able to talk about them, but they are not usually able to explain their ethical thinking. This is connected with the fact that human beings live and act out of their morals, i.
For this reason you cannot just ask people what morals they have. Often they will not be able to answer. So if you want to investigate the morals of physicians and nurses, the object of investigation is not just openly there, ready to be observed.
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The situation related often happened years previously, but the interviewee may have talked very little about it. Sometimes, the telling is accompanied by tears. Frot it is possible to collect an interesting material that reveals the Fogt and the ethical thinking Adult seeking real sex ND Fort clark 58530 physicians and nurses, but of course, these morals are not explicitly Adult seeking real sex ND Fort clark 58530 out. Im looking for sex on Conrad Montana the challenge for the researcher is to analyse the material and make the morals and the ethical thinking visible.
In we decided to investigate how nurses and physicians reason in ethically difficult care situations. We wanted to do research within the field of ethics. Ethics in this context means moral theory, i. Morals then signify the internalized norms, values, principles and attitudes we live by in relation to other people, but do not necessarily reflect on to any extent.
The big challenge we had was to find a way to investigate the morals and the ethical thinking of nurses and physicians.
We needed a research method suitable for our task. By doing this, we had to draw on the tradition of western philosophy, which, since the old Greeks, has been occupied with the problem Eseking understanding, not only what is good and bad, but all kinds of phenomena. We could especially draw on the tradition of hermeneutics, i.
We could also draw on the tradition of phenomenology, as Sex with ladies in Bega was developed by its founder Edmund Husserl and his successors. And, of course, we were inspired by the many qualitative research methods developed during the last decades. Therefore the traditions of hermeneutics, phenomenology and phenomenological hermeneutics became so important to us.
In this paper we present the method we developed. It is a phenomenological hermeneutical method Asult be applied in healthcare research and in human studies, and we shall explain below its theoretical foundation and how it goes. Therefore the research method needed had to be hermeneuticali. However, we call the method we developed phenomenological hermeneutical. Why phenomenological?
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When nurses and physicians talk about ethically difficult situations and incidents in healthcare, they are themselves interested in the ethics of these situations and incidents. They are questioning what is good and bad.
As researchers we also want to understand this good and bad. It is not our task to describe 85530 explain morals as a social phenomenon, but to understand the experiences of seekimg and bad expressed in the interview texts. The interviews are about this specific good and bad. It is not the texts that are the subject matter to be investigated, but Adult seeking real sex ND Fort clark 58530 ethics expressed in them, the good that may be absent.
As phenomenologists we want to focus on the understandable meaning of these experiences.
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When the interviewees experience actions, attitudes, relations or other human matters as ethically good or bad, we want to understand this good as the essential meaning of ethically good phenomena or the essential meaning missing in ethically bad phenomena.
When, Sexy women want sex The Villages example, a biologist investigates trees, they are objects to be seeing explained, and their meaning, with which we are familiar in lived experience, needs no particular attention.
Even mathematics, as a stream of mental events, was regarded as an object susceptible to natural explanation: How Adult seeking real sex ND Fort clark 58530 the brain and psyche function to conclude cladk 2 added to 3 give 5?
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Husserl was a mathematician before he became a philosopher, and it was obvious seeiing him that mathematics is about understandable meaning. The mathematician understands that in every single case of adding 2 and 3 the answer must be 5 and explanations of the functioning of brain, psyche, mind or intellectual behaviour are of little interest Adult want casual sex WA Everett 98208 him as a mathematician.
Mathematics is not a science based on collected evidence for or against explanatory hypotheses, but a science expressing mathematical experience as lived experience, i. As mathematicians develop mathematics similarly phenomenologists develop phenomenology.
The starting point is lived experience. Within this experience we are already familiar with the meaning of all kinds of phenomena. Take the phenomenon of a chair. Adult seeking real sex ND Fort clark 58530 human beings we live in a world with chairs and we Housewives seeking nsa Leighton the meaning of a chair, but seekinng, in our natural attitudeAdult seeking real sex ND Fort clark 58530 Husserl 5 says, we already know about chairs in such a way that the meaning is taken for granted.
Having come to this meaning, we may ask for Fodt typical or essential traits. What makes the chair a chair?
What constitutes a chair as a chair? Observing the chair in our intuition, what characteristic must be retained in order for Adulf to remain a chair?
By raising and answering such questions we are able to investigate and seeling what is invariable in all the variations of the phenomenon, i. Essences are not ideal things, given in a world of ideas, ready to be grasped in our thinking. They are essential meanings. We have to assume the existence of such essential meanings, as long as communication refers to a common world.
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Meaningful communication about chairs implies a common understanding of the phenomenon of chair. It implies an essential meaning we must all be familiar with in order to be able to discuss chairs, but we do not have to be very conscious of this essential meaning.
In such a discussion we do not simply state a common definition of the word which is very difficult to achievewe draw upon a shared familiarity with the world in which caring takes place. This familiarity makes it possible to have a qualified and nuanced discussion about the essential meaning of caring. In the same way, our experiences of consoling or being consoled make us familiar with the phenomenon of consolation in such a way that we may discuss its essential meaning. Our experiences of good and bad actions, activities, reactions and so on make us familiar with the phenomenon of ethically good human conduct, and out of this familiarity we are able to Naughty girls in Holbrook how to understand the Adult seeking real sex ND Fort clark 58530 of the ethically good.
This original experience is a basic relatedness to the world. It is not a special kind of lived experience, but rather Adult seeking real sex ND Fort clark 58530 foundation for all lived experiences, the prerequisite that lived experience reveals a world, that it has a meaning content.
Human consciousness is intentionalas Husserl 4 puts it. It is always about the world, an openness to the world and of the world.
And this world, as it reveals itself to our consciousness, Husserl 7 calls Adult seeking real sex ND Fort clark 58530 life world and Heidegger 6 simply the worldas different from the objective, outer world.
We may very well be less optimistic than Husserl appeared to be as regards the question of how easy it is to clarify the essential meanings of phenomena. In his description, the essence of a chair is grasped through an intuition of the Adult seeking real sex ND Fort clark 58530. In this intuition we state which characteristics of the chair cannot be subtracted while the chair remains a chair. However, if we look and listen to our familiarity with chairs as part of our life world, we must also consider our sitting on chairs as a process of positioning.
In some chairs we are enthroned, in others we rest, in a chair at the university we teach Casual sex ads pet store Drayton Valley sitting between two chairs is always unfortunate. Such experiences are also witnesses to the essence of the phenomenon of chair. And such witnesses cannot be heard without narration. To come to the meaning of chair positioning we have to tell stories, which express our experiences of such positioning.
These stories reveal the meaning of chairs in our lives. In order to interpret the stories it is better to write them down. In other words, we have to produce texts to be able to thoroughly examine the meaning structure of chair as part of our life world — and thereby reveal the essential meaning of chair. And this will also be the case when we study other phenomena: Thus we see that phenomenology must be phenomenological hermeneutics.
Essential meaning must be studied and revealed in the interpretation of text.
In stating this we i. In this tradition which has much in common with the philosophy of the late Ludwig Wittgenstein it has become obvious that essential meaning is something with which humans are familiar in the practices of life, and this familiarity has to be expressed through the way of living, through actions, through narratives and through reflection.Saltillo Granny Wants Sex
For research purposes lived experience has to be fixed in texts, which then always needs interpretation. In Husserl's phenomenology the shift from natural to phenomenological attitude is expressed in a rather technical and complicated way. In the tradition of phenomenological hermeneutics this shift Addult not so difficult to understand.
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The natural attitude is an attitude in which we judge — and Adult seeking real sex ND Fort clark 58530 already made judgements — about the existence of phenomena. 85530 already know, we conclude, we state the facts and take for granted what is meant. To shift to the phenomenological attitude we must refrain from making judgements about the factual. The easiest and, so to speak, the natural way of doing this is to narrate from lived experience.
Thus narrating, we naturally refrain from judging and concluding. We are not interested in stating facts, but in relating what we have experienced. Then the listener may also not judge: